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Hangman fracture cause of death

In elderly people, a hangman's fracture can be caused by low-impact trauma as well. This is more common in people who have conditions like osteoporosis, cancer that has spread to the bones, or.. Causes Falls and car accidents are the most common causes of a hangman's fracture. This type of injury can also be the result of sports activities, such as a forceful hit while playing football or.. A hangman's fracture to the C2 vertebra, second from the top, is usually caused by hyperextension (bending back) of the head, often with distraction (upward pulling) of the neck. A neck fracture. Facial fracture patterns were grouped as lower face (mandible), midface (maxilla, zygoma, nose, and orbits), and upper face (frontal bone). Causes of death were grouped into neurologic, visceral, combined neurologic and visceral, and other. Surviving and nonsurviving groups were compared. Parametric data were analyzed with a pooled or separate. The fall caused a hangman's fracture. The injury is hazardous as it can lead to death because of suffocation. The hangman's fracture happens when one smashes the two upper vertebrae in their spine..

In the short drop, which can be a few inches to a few feet, the subject invariably dies of strangulation and/or the compression of the arteries in the neck. The same type of death occurs in suspension hanging, in which the subject is jerked into the air instead of being dropped. And in a standard-drop hanging, the subjects falls about 5 feet During the follow-up, all-cause age- and sex-standardized mortality after hip fracture was 3-fold higher than that of the general population and included every cause-of-death category. Conclusion During the study period, the risk of mortality in hip fracture patients was 3-fold higher than that in the general population and included every major. Certification of cause of death has been a legal obligation for medical practitioners since 18741 and has been central to our knowledge of the incidence of fatal diseases. To assess whether certified cause of death reflects the well documented high mortality after fracture of the proximal femur,2 we reviewed the certification of cause of death in patients who died soon after such injuries The purpose of this report is to explain the cause of death of Mr. Dale Earnhardt, with particular attention to the role of facial contact, inertial head loading (the whip mechanism), and impact. A severe blood pressure drop can ensue and the victim may die within minutes As seen above, a hangman's fracture is seen with hyperextension injuries where the pars interarticularis on the pedicle of the C2 vertebrae becomes fractured. The distance of the drop is crucial in determining the success of the execution

Hangman's Fracture: What Is It, What Causes It, and How It

Hangman's Fracture: Symptoms, Treatment, and Mor

Compression fracture of the vertebral body is common, especially in older adults. Vertebral compression fractures usually are caused by osteoporosis, and range from mild to severe. More severe. Sometimes, the spinal nerves may be affected. In that case, the injured people are likely to feel numbness and tingling in the arms and legs and have trouble breathing. But usually, the spinal cord can escape injury when hangman’s fracture happens. In a severe situation, paralysis or even death may be possible too Causes Falls and car accidents are the most common causes of a hangman's fracture. This type of injury can also be the result of sports activities, such as a forceful hit while playing football or rugby. A hangman's fracture affects a part of the vertebrae called the pars interarticularis

Hangman's fracture that almost robbed world of the man who

  1. Dr. Ebraheim's educational animated video describes Hangman's fractures. Hangman's Fracture is a bilateral fracture of the pars interarticularis. The spinal.
  2. The injury mechanism in this patient led to a combined C1-C2 fracture and a fatal spinal cord injury with apnea, quadriplegia, and cardiovascular instability. In fact, cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death after spinal cord injury [
  3. A basilar skull fracture is a break of a bone in the base of the skull. Symptoms may include bruising behind the ears, bruising around the eyes, or blood behind the ear drum. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs in about 20% of cases and may result in fluid leaking from the nose or ear. Meningitis occurs in about 14% of cases. Other complications include injuries to the cranial nerves or.
  4. ation of Hanging Deaths. Internal injuries are absent in many hangings, even with complete suspension, which underscores that hanging is a gentle form of asphyxia, particularly when self-inflicted (4,7,15,16,23,24,28,50,93,128). Consciousness is lost rapidly, with little time for purposeful activity (125)
  5. Hanging causes instantaneous death. This is strictly speaking a MYTH, largely put about by the British government from around the beginning of the 20th century until abolition to make executions seem more palatable to the general public. At best hanging causes instant unconsciousness and immediate cessation o
  6. Atypical hanging. 1.Complete hanging. When feet do not touch the ground and the weight of the body acts as a constricting force. 2. Partial hanging. When the weight of the head and not the whole body acts as a constricting force is known as partial hanging. 3.Typical hanging
  7. The first is a simple, nondisplaced rib fracture. These often cause pain but little else. The second is a displaced rib fracture that imbeds itself into the lung, the liver, the spleen or major vessels. These are dangerous rib fractures to have. The third type of rib fracture occurs when one or more ribs has two fractures (or more) in the same rib
Thabane says looking for a hangman | The Post

The death rate within one year of fractured neck of femur is typically reported as between 20% and 35%.1-3 Performance indicators based on mortality after hospital admission for such fractures have been promoted.4 The only measure of mortality in routine hospital statistics, however, is in-hospital mortality—death during the initial admission for the fracture Part I. Complications Causing Death.Description of the author's material.Classification of the fractures of the skull.Causes of death.Deaths from cerebral concussion.Deaths from exhaustion.Deaths from terminal lobular pneumonia.Deaths caused by cerebral compression, lacterations of the brain and.. A new study shows certain fractures due to osteoporosis can cause premature death in people 45 and older. This is the largest study, to date, that shows a connection between these fractures and. After fractures of the upper arm bone, clavicle or rib, risk of death rose by 5 percent to 10 percent, and by 3 percent for a lower-leg break. With an upper- or lower-leg break, a small but. A hip fracture is a serious diagnosis, particularly for patients of an older demographic. Approximately 300,000 Americans are hospitalized because of a hip fracture every year. Most of these patients are elderly, and many have a hard time regaining their independence and recovering from their fall. According to several studies, the one-year mortality rate for elderly patients with a hip.

Types of the cervical fractures: Hangman's Fracture - This type of fracture is common for the C2 vertebrae. Odontoid Fracture - The Odontoid fracture is a fracture very common in children. It affects C2 vertebra as well. To be exact, this fracture is a fracture of the axis Facial fracture patterns were grouped as lower face (mandible), midface (maxilla, zygoma, nose, and orbits), and upper face (frontal bone). Causes of death were grouped into neurologic, visceral, combined neurologic and visceral, and other. Surviving and nonsurviving groups were compared

A death certificate is a permanent record of an individual's death. One purpose of the death certificate is to obtain a simple description of the sequence or process leading to death rather than a record describing all medical conditions present at death. Causes of death on the death certificate represent a medical opinion that might vary. Death rates within the first 3 months to 1 year following a neck injury can range from 10-57% depending on the age of the person. Type of Broken Neck Injuries. Broken necks, or upper cervical injuries, are the most common location of fractures in the elderly population. There are 3 common injuries related to a broken neck If you or someone you know is having trouble with depression and suicidal thoughts, please get help. Reach out to someone you know and trust, or call the suicide hotline at 1-800-273-8255. Remember you are loved, and there's always another way/ Di.. During the study period, a total of 14 827 fractures (9145 in women and 5682 in men) and 15 621 deaths were reported. Having an incident fracture doubled mortality rates: for men, 15.7 deaths.

A hangman's fracture results bybreaking the C2 vertebra at two specific locations. Photo: Michael Utz, Shadab Khan, Daniel O'Connor and Stephen Meyers/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 4.0 To achieve this for every hanging, executioners were able to determine that the knot of the noose should be placed below the chin, a.k.a. a submental knot pressure to the neck and sudden cardiac death . Arteries in the neck. Source: Wikipedia . The application of pressure to the neck can result in death due to asphyxia, but rare instances have been reported of mild or 'playful' pressure being applied to the neck that have resulted in 'instantaneous death' line a and the underlying cause of death (the disease or injury that initiated the chain of events that led directly and inevitably to death) on the lowest used line. Part II is for reporting all other significant diseases, conditions, or injuries that contributed to death but which did not result in the underlying cause of death given in Part. Four patients died after having been discharged from the hospital and their causes of death could not be established from the available medical records. Analysis of the distal femur fracture group showed the presence of a TKA and higher age-adjusted CCI led to shorter survival (HR = 3.21, p = 0.005; and HR = 1.32, p = 0.004, respectively)

The strength or certainty of a cause of death. A doctor may arrive at a cause of death in a number of ways. The provision of a cause of death on a 'death certificate' does not necessarily mean that the doctor had comprehensively investigated the patient's medical status and that the test results provided an unequivocal evidence base for. Dangerous Femur Fracture. One of the most severe bone fractures that somebody can sustain is a broken femur. A femur fracture can lead to complications, some of which might be deadly. Some of the causes of femur fractures include: Suffering a broken femur in an auto accident cause of death and cannot correct any spelling mistakes. Please take care when completing the MCCD and write clearly. If the death needs to be referred to the coroner, the registrar should refer without discussing the cause with the certifying doctor. Under the current non-statutory scheme Type I fractures occur very rarely and type II is the most common Type I: avulsion fracture of the apex. Stable injuries. Type II: fracture through the base of the dens, at the junction of the odontoid base and the body of C2. Often unstable injuries. Type III: fracture extends into the body of the axis. Usually stable injuries

The relationship between facial fractures and death from

  1. Ankle Fractures in Seniors. After looking at the data, Dr. Rosenbaum and colleagues concluded: 27 percent of patients with an open ankle fracture died within one to two months after the fracture. (People think hip fractures are death sentences for seniors, but only 10 percent of seniors who suffer a hip fracture die within 30 days.
  2. Feb 20, 2001 at 4:45 PM. Dale Earnhardt died from a severe fracture to the base of his skull that caused bruising and bleeding to the soft tissue in his brain. When his race car smashed into a.
  3. Traumatic spondylolisthesis of C2 (hangman fracture) A great deal of confusion surrounds the exact pathology of this fracture. The modern origin of this confusion seems to be in a paper published by Schneider in 1964, wherein the term hangman's fracture was given to fractures sustained in MVAs that had radiographic similarities to fractures.
  4. The Play of Death is the sixth book in Hangman's Daughter, the million-copy bestselling series.. It is 1670 and Simon Fronwieser is in the town of Oberammergau to bring his seven-year-old son to boarding school. As he bids his boy a tearful farewell, news comes of a shocking murder: the man who was to play the part of Christ in the town's Passion play has been found dead, nailed to the set.
  5. After hip fracture, higher risk of death may last for years. Older people who suffer a hip fracture face a much higher risk of death soon after the injury, but the risk persists over the longer.
  6. Cause of C-2 hangman's fracture. distraction and extension. Tx for C-2 hangman's fracture. traction and halo. Most common cause of death following myocardial contusion. V- tach and V-fib. When is the risk of death highest for myocardial contusions. In first 24 hours following the injury

Superman actor Christopher Reeve accident story and cause

A cervical fracture is a break in a vertebra (bone) in your neck. The 7 cervical vertebrae are called C1 through C7. Cervical vertebrae support your head and allow your neck to bend and twist. The vertebrae enclose and protect the spinal cord. Nerves in the spinal cord control your ability to move A) Hangman's fractures occur when the patient's skull rapidly accelerates. B) Most hangman's fractures occur during a fall from greater than 10 feet. C) It is a fracture of C2 that is secondary to significant distraction of the neck A broken hip, also known as a hip fracture, can lead to serious disability, even death. How Dangerous Is a Broken Hip? Falls have the dubious honor of being the top cause of injury and injury-related deaths in people older than 65

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Skull fracture. Sometimes, a broken skull bone can affect the brain. The broken pieces of bone can cut into the brain and cause bleeding and other types of injury A hip fracture dramatically increases an older person's risk of death. One in three adults 50 and over dies within 12 months of suffering a hip fracture Jefferson fracture. Assoc Prof Craig Hacking and Rishi Agrawal et al. Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of the atlas. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. On this page A.A. Fisher, E.D. O’Brien, M.W. Davis, Trends in hip fracture epidemiology in Australia: possible impact of bisphosphonates and hormone replacement therapy Bone 45: 2 (2009) 246-253 3. D.E. Deakin, C. Boulton, C.G. Moran, Mortality and causes of death among patients with isolated limb and pelvic fractures Injury 38: 3 (2007) 312-317 4

What causes the fracture? When an external force is applied to the spine, such as from a fall, the forces may exceed the ability of the bone within the vertebral column to support the load. This may cause the front part of the vertebral body to crush, resulting in a compression fracture. If the entire vertebral column breaks, it results in a. Hangman's Fracture - AKA Traumatic spondylolisthesis - Bilateral arch fracture of C2 (pars) - Younger age group (Avg 38 yrs) - Usually due to hyperextension-axial compression forces (windshield strike) - Neurologic injury seen in only 5-10 % • Effendi Classification Levine & Edwards, and Sonntag & Dickman Azam Basheer 56

Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged

Fractures to the skull may be one of several types. A linear fracture is a simple split in the bone, but it does not lead to movement between the plates of the skull. A depressed skull fracture occurs with an injury that causes an indentation in the skull. This can potentially cause serious injury to the brain Talus fracture causes. Most talus fractures are the result of high-energy trauma such as a car collision or a fall from height. Injuries from sports, particularly from snowboarding, are another, less common, cause of talar injuries. As with many types of fractures, the causes and risk factors can be divided into two types: Large forces on.

Certification of cause of death in patients dying soon

Call 434.924.2663. Schedule Online. A neck fracture can happen from a fall, a car wreck, or violence. If you're older or have weak bones from disease, even a sudden, hard twist can break your neck. However it happens, this kind of trauma is serious and scary. A neck fracture can paralyze you or even lead to death Odontoid fractures are relatively common fractures of the C2 vertebral body (axis) that can be seen in low energy falls in eldery patients and high energy traumatic injuries in younger patients. Treatment depends on the location of the fracture within the C2 vertebrae defined by the Anderson and D'Alonzo classification system and the patient's risk factors for nonunion (failed bone healing) Patients sustaining fractures of 6 or more ribs are at significant risk for death from causes unrelated to the rib fractures. Predictors of Mortality in Blunt Chest Trauma When evaluating a patient for possible discharge or admission after blunt trauma, you need to know which patients are at highest risk of pneumonia and death

The causes of a broken neck are usually some sort of trauma, such as a fall or car accident. Very rarely does a stress fracture — a break caused by a constant or repeated stress — occur in the. In Webster's Dictionary, trauma is defined as an injury or wound to a living body caused by the application of external violence. Injury is a public health problem of vast proportions. In 1999 injury was the leading cause of death for persons ages 1 to 34 and was the fifth leading cause of death overall. 1 There were 29 million nonfatal injuries from all causes in 2005 for a rate of.

MR. DALE EARNHARDT CRASH ANALYSIS - Orlando Sentine

  1. Table 3: Level of application of force and its relationship to fracture of hyoid bone. Cause of death / Level of constricting force Hanging Ligature strangulation Manual strangulation Fracture of Hyoid bone Above the level of thyroid cartilage 21 3 9 11 (33.33%) At the level of thyroid cartilage 14 9 6 4 (13.79%).
  2. The next day, March 7, 1965, the discovery of the decomposing body of Herbert Cukurs, Hangman of Riga, was flashed on the news wires from Uruguay together with the contents of his death verdict
  3. e the rate and causes of mortality in vertebral fracture patients. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral fractures are associated with increased mortality in prior studies. Methods. Of 1,125,691 patients, we collected data of 23,026 patients of all ages who experienced thoracic or lumber vertebral fractures between 2002 and 2013
  4. Clay Shoveler's Fracture Causes and Treatment. Fractures in the cervical spine can occur with acute or repetitive trauma. Clay shovelers fracture is an avulsion fracture of the spinous process. It occurs with abrupt flexion of the head such as found with motor vehicle accidents, diving, or wrestling injuries
  5. Avascular necrosis is a localized death of bone as a result of local injury ( trauma ), drug side effects, or disease. This is a serious condition because the dead areas of bone do not function normally, are weakened, and can collapse. Avascular necrosis ultimately leads to destruction of the joint adjacent to the involved bone
  6. Hip fractures are most likely to occur in people 65 years of age and older, but more than half occur in people over 85. Hip fractures are usually the result of a fall, either while walking, standing or from bed, or a collision, for example with another person, an animal, or furniture. Forty-seven per cent of falls occur in private homes, and 32.

How to tell if someone died from hanging vs

Humerus fractures cause severe pain and swelling. On a scale of 10, pain in patients following a humerus fracture is eight or more. Shortening of the arm is apparent with significant deformity of the bones. Humerus fractures are a very painful injury, and patients may need to take pain relief medications regularly as prescribed by the doctor The Los Angeles County coroner confirmed Friday that Petty's cause of death was a multisystem organ failure due to mixed drug intoxication, including fentanyl, oxycodone, temazepam, alprazolam. This fracture is considered unstable, though neurologic deficit is rare; Large size of canal relative to cord; Auto-decompression with bilateral fractures; Imaging findings: Best seen on lateral view and CT. Figure 6 Hangman's fracture of C2 on plain radiograph. Figure 7 Hangman's fracture on sagittal CT . Figure 8 Hangman's fracture on.

Superficial and deep back vertebral column at GeorgiaBroken neck can cause Death - Everything You Need To Know

Hanged by the neck until dead

  1. A hangman's fracture—a break in the second vertebrae down from the skull (the C2)—is likely to require traction and surgery may be necessary for very severe neck fractures. When a break involves the spinal cord, paralysis or even death may occur
  2. Pelvic Fractures. The pelvis is the sturdy ring of bones located at the base of the spine. Fractures of the pelvis are uncommon—accounting for only about 3% of all adult fractures. Most pelvic fractures are caused by some type of traumatic, high-energy event, such as a car collision
  3. e cause of death, and today's computed tomography (CT) can provide valuable clues if images are interpreted properly. Forensic Pathology of Fractures and Mechanisms of Injury: Postmortem CT Scanning is a guide for the forensic pathologist who wants to use CT imaging to assist in deter

Trauma to the head can cause several types of injuries, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) which accounts for about 70% of fatality for those above 65 years. Skull fracture - a crack in one or more places of the skull. It usually causes bruising or contusion of the brain under the fracture Older adults are more vulnerable to fractures due to bone mass loss. Hip fractures can be tremendously grave, often leading to chronic disease and even death. Now, experts from the American. The fractures can cause fluid to build up in the bone marrow, which cuts off the supply of blood to bone cells. Secondary osteonecrosis. This form of necrosis of the knee is usually seen in women younger than 45 years, and affects both knees. It is often related to another illness, such as sickle cell anemia or lupus Falls resulting in hip fractures are a major cause of injury and even death to the elderly. Typically, the hip's speed at impact is about 2.0 m/s. If this can be reduced to 1.3 m/s or less, the hip will usually not fracture. One way to do this is by wearing elastic hip pads. Part A You're required to provide a cause of death and issue a death certificate (under the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1953) if: you're a registered medical practitioner; were in attendance during the deceased's last illness; You need to state the cause of death to the best of your knowledge and belief. The doctor who attended for the last.

Within 30 days of having surgery, 6,371 patients, or 4.6 per cent, died. The risk of death was lower for patients who had surgery sooner. The research team found that within 30 days of surgery. Fractures can break the skin (called open fractures) or not (called closed fractures). An injury that breaks a bone may also seriously damage other tissues, including the skin, nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and organs. These injuries can complicate treatment of the fracture and/or cause temporary or permanent problems The seriousness of a fall often depends on the nature of the accident. For example, how a senior lands when they fall could mean the difference between a broken hip, a traumatic brain injury (TBI), or a few bumps and scrapes. Fractured bones and soft tissue injuries (e.g., bruises, sprains and strains) are the most common fall-related injuries The signs of death being near can be different for each person. No one can really predict what may happen at the end of life, how long the final stage of life will last, or when death will actually happen. Sometimes death comes quickly due to an unexpected event or problem. Other times the dying process moves slowly and the patient seems to linger

Head injuries are one of the most common causes of disability and death in children. The injury can be as mild as a bump, bruise (contusion), or cut on the head, or can be moderate to severe in nature due to a concussion, deep cut or open wound, fractured skull bone (s), or from internal bleeding and damage to the brain Head injury is the leading cause of wheeled sports-related death and the most important determinant of permanent disability after a crash. Without proper protection, a fall of as little as two feet can result in a skull fracture or other TBI This chronic condition is one of the leading causes of disability in aging men and women. Hip fractures can cause loss of independence. Vertebral fractures (also called compression fractures in the spine) cause discomfort and may interfere with breathing. Lethality. Osteoporosis is not usually listed as the cause of death on a death certificate

A Jefferson fracture causes upper neck pain. You may not have any problems with movement, speech, or brain function unless nerves in the spinal cord are also injured Causes of Limb Fractures in Cats. It might sound obvious, but trauma is the number one reason cats break (or fracture) their limbs. Common types of trauma include: Vehicular trauma: This is perhaps the most common cause of feline fractures. Bite wounds: Dog bites, in particular, are a common explanation for broken extremities

Introduction. Knee pain has multiple causes, the most common being osteoarthritis, particularly in the older population.However, there are other conditions besides osteoarthritis which can cause pain, such as meniscal cartilage tears and ligament injuries of the knee, or issues that affect blood circulation in the surrounding bone area, leading to a condition called osteonecrosis Falls resulting in hip fractures are a major cause of injury and even death to the elderly. Typically, the hip's speed at impact is about 2.0 m/s . If this can be reduced to 1.3 m/s or less, the hip will usually not fracture. One way to do this is by wearing elastic hip pads Hyoid fractures have previously sparked controversy in jailhouse and other contentious deaths. the cause of death was changed to homicide when a Maryland state medical examiner discovered the. Objectives. To examine trends in hip fracture-related mortality among older adults in the United States between 1999 and 2013. Material and Methods. The Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research system was used to identify adults aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of hip fracture reported in their multiple cause of death record So, you've broken a bone. Only those who have experienced a fracture can truly understand how painful and debilitating it can be. Recovering should be your first priority. However, you and your doctor also will want to determine whether this fracture is a symptom of osteoporosis. If you have this underlying disorder, it puts you at greater risk for future fractures

Calcaneus fractures are uncommon. Fractures of the tarsal bones account for only about 2% of all adult fractures and only half of tarsal fractures are calcaneus fractures. A fracture may cause the heel bone to widen and shorten. In some cases, a fracture may also enter the subtalar joint in the foot The investigation into disgraced financier Jeffrey Epstein's death could hinge on a minute bone in his neck that in the past has shed light on whether a cause of death is a suicide or a murder These skeletal changes are reflected in hospital records, which show that more than 300,000 adults over the age of 65 are admitted each year due to a hip fracture, nearly all the result of falling, usually sideways. Unfortunately, it's true that a hip fracture in older adults can contribute to poor outcomes, including an increased risk of death Injury in Canada is a serious public health concern. It is a leading cause of hospitalization for children, young adults and seniors, and it is a major cause of disability and death. Falls remain the leading cause of injury-related hospitalizations among Canadian seniors, and between 20% and 30% of seniors fall each year

Hangman's Fracture C2 Vertebrae Fracture Causes and Treamen

  1. al bruising, limb fracture, postoperative trauma, head trauma (crushed skulls), and death. 7 Its close cousin, malingering by proxy, is the har
  2. Rib fractures can result from major trauma, such as a car crash. Rib bones moved out of alignment can cause life-threatening complications including punctures and damage to the lungs and other critical blood vessels or organs. About 19 percent of older adults who sustained fractures of three or four ribs died from complications, according to.
  3. Facial fractures cause. Trauma. Facial fractures treatment. Reduction of fracture, surgical repair/placement of internal or external fixation devices -Third leading cause of death in the US. Two types of stroke-Ischemic: blood clot blocks a blood vessel in brain-Hemorrhagic: blood vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds into brain tissues.
GEMC- Hanging and Strangulation, Asphyxiation & AeA "ThePPT - Cervical Spine Trauma PowerPoint Presentation - ID

Hangman fracture Radiology Reference Article

The remaining participants were at high risk for fracture, defined as having osteopenia with a BMD T-score from -2.5 to -2.0 with a 10-year predicted probability for fracture at or above the. Fractures at the base of the skull are problematic since they can cause injury to nerves, arteries, or other structures. If the fracture extends into the sinuses, a leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the nose or ears may occur. Depressed skull fractures, in which part of the bone presses on or into the brain, can also occur Problem 2.65: Prevention of hip fractures. Falls resulting in hip fractures are a major cause of injury and even death to the elderly. Typically, the hip's speed at impact is about 2.0 m/s. If this can be reduced to 1.3 m/s or less, the hip will usually not fracture. One way to do this is by wearing elastic hip pads

Asphyxia and airway deathFigure 1 from Sub-occipital ligature knot in a case ofChapter 2 - Vertebrae, Ribs, Sternum and Back muscles web