What is susceptibility

sus·cep·ti·bil·i·ty. 1. Likelihood of an individual to develop ill effects from an external agent, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, high altitude, or ambient temperature. 2. Likelihood that a given pathogenic microorganism will be inhibited or killed by a given microbial agent. Synonym (s): sensitivity (4) SUSCEPTIBILITY. 1. The vulnerability or increased likelihood of being affected by a disease or illness. 2. The capacity to feel deep emotional arousal. It is the likelihood of being affected by anything. SUSCEPTIBILITY: Joe had a susceptibility to catch the flu each year. Cite this page: N., Pam M.S., SUSCEPTIBILITY, in PsychologyDictionary. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied magnetic field. It is caused by interactions of electrons and nuclei with the externally applied magnetic field In physics the susceptibility is a quantification for the change of an extensive property under variation of an intensive property. The word may refer to: In physics, the susceptibility of a material or substance describes its response to an appli..

Susceptibility to pathogens is the extent to which a plant, vegetation complex, or ecological community would suffer from a pathogen if exposed, without regard to the likelihood of exposure. It should not be confused with vulnerability, which by convention in this field takes into account both the effect of exposure and the likelihood of exposure Susceptibility is a measure of the extent to which a substance becomes magnetized when it is placed in an external magnetic field. A synonym for susceptibility is magnetizability. When matter interacts with the magnetic field, an internal magnetization or polarization (J) is created that either opposes or augments the external field. If the polarization opposes the applied field, the. Susceptibility (χ) is a measure of the extent a substance becomes magnetized when placed in an external magnetic field.Materials that disperse the main field are called diamagnetic.Materials that concentrate the field are called paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, or ferromagnetic, depending on the magnitude of the effect. Calcium salts (as found in cortical bone) are the most strongly.

Volume susceptibility. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied magnetic field.A related term is magnetizability, the proportion between magnetic moment and magnetic flux density. A closely related parameter is the permeability, which expresses the total magnetization of material and. Susceptibility is a term used when microbe such as bacteria and fungi are unable to grow in the presence of one or more antimicrobial drugs. Susceptibility testing is performed on bacteria or fungi causing an individual's infection after they have been recovered in a culture of the specimen Susceptibility is an operator (generally a tensor), converting one vector field to another. It is dimensionless. Electric susceptibility is a measure of the ease of polarisation of a material. Magnetic susceptibility is a measure of the strengthening of a magnetic field in the presence of a material. Diamagnetic material has negative magnetic.

Susceptibility definition of susceptibility by Medical

Define susceptibility. susceptibility synonyms, susceptibility pronunciation, susceptibility translation, English dictionary definition of susceptibility. n. pl. sus·cep·ti·bil·i·ties 1. The quality or condition of being susceptible. 2. The capacity to be affected by deep emotions or strong feelings;.. Susceptibility linked to slope instabilities, for instance, indicates the tendency of an area to breakdown. According to Brabb (), susceptibility is the probability of an event happening in a specific zone, depending on the correlation of the instability-determining factors with the distribution of the past movements.By applying different methods, including heuristic, probabilistic, nearest.


In electromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility is the measure of the magnetization of a substance.Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied magnetic field. The magnitude of M is proportional to the applied field as follows: The magnetic susceptibility and the relative permeability are. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied magnetic field. A related term is magnetizability, the proportion between magnetic moment and magnetic flux density Susceptibility Watch More Videos at: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htmLecture By: Mr. Pradeep Kshetrapal, Tutorials Point India Privat.. susceptibility definition: 1. the fact that someone or something can easily be influenced, harmed, or infected 2. the feelings. Learn more disease susceptibility: ( di-zēz sŭ-septi-bili-tē ) Predisposal to or having a risk of a disease

Magnetic susceptibility, quantitative measure of the extent to which a material may be magnetized in relation to a given applied magnetic field.The magnetic susceptibility of a material, commonly symbolized by χ m, is equal to the ratio of the magnetization M within the material to the applied magnetic field strength H, or χ m = M/H. This ratio, strictly speaking, is the volume. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be combined with clinical information and experience when selecting the most appropriate antibiotic for your patient. What is the output from antimicrobial susceptibility testing? The raw data are either in the form of a zone size or MIC The Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method is well documented and is the standardized method for determining antimicrobial susceptibility. White filter paper disks (6 mm in diameter) are impregnated with known amounts of antimicrobial agents. Each disk is coded with the name and concentration of the agent

Definition of disease susceptibility in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of disease susceptibility. What does disease susceptibility mean? Information and translations of disease susceptibility in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web Note: This is a brief description of some important concepts in the use of susceptibility data to guide therapy. This information is in no way intended to supersede clinical judgment, information provided in package inserts or textbooks, nor to replace a thorough review of the many fine books and information sources on antimicrobial use

antibiotic susceptibility: ( an'tē-bī-ot'ik sŭs-sep'ti-bil'i-tē ) Vulnerability of a specific microorganism to inhibition or destruction by an antibiotic Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is an MRI sequence that is particularly sensitive to compounds which distort the local magnetic field and as such make it useful in detecting blood products, calcium, etc. Physics SWI is a 3D high-spatial-r.. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) confirms susceptibility, detects resistance and guides the selection of patient therapy. Microbiology labs are essential to stewardship programs by. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY? What does DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY mean? DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY meaning.

What Is Magnetic Susceptibility? - Formula, Definition, Uni

  1. ed whether the bacterium was considered to be susceptible, resistant, or intermediate to a particular antibiotic
  2. Magnetic susceptibility reflects a material's degree of sensitivity to magnetic fields. Some materials are highly susceptible and will become magnetized in response to a magnetic fields, while others resist magnetism, depending on their composition. It is possible to test this trait in the lab to come up with an absolute measurement that may.
  3. Liquefaction Susceptibility. Liquefaction is a phenomenon where saturated sand and silt take on the characteristics of a liquid during the intense shaking of an earthquake. The highest hazard areas are concentrated in regions of man-made landfill, especially fill that was placed many decades ago in areas that were once submerged bay floor
  4. Windows of Susceptibility. People can be exposed to a wide variety of chemical and non-chemical stressors in their daily lives. These stressors may come from outdoors, homes or workplaces, food consumption, or use of personal care products. Exposure at low levels may not necessarily be problematic for human health, but researchers are looking.
  5. Magnetic susceptibility denotes the degree of change in magnetization of a substance when an external magnetic field is applied to it. Physically , it states the capacity of a material to acquire magnetism The more the susceptibility , the more.
  6. Susceptibility is caused by interactions of electrons and nuclei with the externally applied magnetic field. Nuclei and electrons each possess spin, a quantum mechanical property with no exact analogue in classical physics.Don't worry if you don't understand this
  7. Differential susceptibility is proposed as a bet-hedging strategy in human evolution. If an effect of parenting is proven counterproductive, the less susceptible children will be less affected. On the other hand, if a parenting style is proven beneficial, the more malleable offspring will benefit more

What is susceptibility? - Quor

Susceptibility Scan Speeds f o = tuned frequency. Most test labs execute susceptibility tests manually because of the randomness of susceptibility occurrences. It's difficult enough to establish the susceptibility criteria. But then these criteria must be monitored and provided as feedback to a computer to tell it to stop when susceptibility. susceptibility. In this higher frequency case, the magnetization of the sample may lag behind the drive field, an effect that is detected by the magnetometer circuitry. Thus, the AC mag-netic susceptibility measurement yields two quantities: the magnitude of the susceptibility, χ , and the phase shift, ϕ (relative to the drive signal) What is Magnetic Susceptibility? Magnetic susceptibility is the measure of magnetic properties of a material which indicates whether the material is attracted or repelled from an external magnetic field. This is a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties. Different materials have different values for the magnetic susceptibility MIL-STD-461F CS114, a conducted susceptibility test applicable to power and signal conductors, is a simulation of RF signals inducing currents onto the interface cables. It is used in lieu of creating RF fields for the purpose of radiated susceptibility testing. In an actual installation, cables may be fairly long, a significant fractional.

What is magnetic susceptibility? Magnetic susceptibility specifies whether a material will be attracted into or repelled out of a magnetic field. It is the measure of how much a material will become magnetized by the application of applied magnetic field. Mathematically, it is the ratio of M to H. M is magnetic moment per unit volume Differential susceptibility is the well-researched idea that HSPs are deeply affected by their environments, for better and for worse. With poor childhoods they are more likely than others to be depressed, anxious, or shy, and with good childhoods they can do not just as well but even better than those who are not so sensitive—more. Find 6 ways to say SUSCEPTIBILITY, along with antonyms, related words, and example sentences at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus

Susceptibility - Wikipedi

  1. ation of the described subspecific taxa of M. morganii. M. morganii strains that do not belong to biovar A are rare. Publication type
  2. Other articles where Hypersusceptibility is discussed: poison: Allergies: caused by the terms hypersensitivity, hypersusceptibility, and idiosyncrasy. Hypersensitivity is a reaction to a chemical or substance in certain individuals and has a basis in the immune system. Hypersusceptibility is an increased predisposition of certain individuals to react to a chemical
  3. Magnetic susceptibility is actually caused by the reciprocal action of electrons and nuclei by the application of peripheral magnetic field. That is, a c takes place inside it that will either opposes or intensify the applied peripheral field. If it opposes the applied magnetic field, the result will be diamagnetism
  4. More Genetic Clues to COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severity. Posted on July 20th, 2021 by Dr. Francis Collins. Many factors influence our risk of illness from SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19
  5. Therefore, antifungal susceptibility testing of all clinical isolates remains essential for targeted antifungal therapy. Voriconazole was the only compound with low MIC values (MIC(90) of ≤ 2 μg/ml) for P. apiosperma and P. boydii
  6. However, susceptibility to respiratory morbidity varies among smokers and chronic cough and phlegm production and other respiratory-related morbidity occur in nonsmokers. Children were also significantly more likely to suffer from these conditions if their father had an inherited susceptibility to allergy or the child was a firstborn
  7. es if the organism is viable and can just grow in the broth

Definition of susceptibility in English English dictionary emotional sensitivity the condition of being susceptible; vulnerability electric susceptibility, a measure of how easily a dielectric polarizes in response to an external electric field (compare permittivity Susceptibility is a term used to describe the condition in which microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of one or more antimicrobial drugs. Susceptibility testing determines the potential effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent on the organism causing an infection and/or determines if the organism has developed resistance to certain. A susceptible host is a member of a species population who is at risk of becoming infected with a certain disease due to a variety of reasons. Susceptible hosts differ from the general population because they are far more likely to get infectious diseases than the general population. Susceptible hosts have a myriad of reasons for their.

Bauer-Kirby Disk Diffusion Test | Alfred Bauer, William

Video: Magnetic susceptibility (χ) - Questions and Answers in MR

Teaching NeuroImages: Susceptibility-weighted MRI | Neurology

Antonyms for susceptibility include invulnerability, immunity, resistance, hardness, insensitivity, invincibility, strength, security, safety and inviolability. Find. Start studying Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

Bacitracin susceptibility test is one of the antimicrobial disk tests for the identification of group A Streptococci from other β-hemolytic Streptococci. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests are mostly performed for the differentiation of different species of a particular genus Magnetic Susceptibility by Quinck's Method Experiment is determined for the FECL3 solution. Magnetic dipole is the key for susceptibility

Susceptibility artifact - Questions and Answers in MR

Susceptibility K is a dimensionless number related to the number of individual magnetic dipoles in the medium that can be aligned with the main field. Note that as the field increases the number of dipoles that align themselves with the field also increases Susceptibility: the quality or state of having little resistance to some outside agent. Synonyms: defenselessness, vulnerability, weakness Antonyms: invulnerabilit Dilution susceptibility tests. Manual or semi-automated dilution susceptibility tests are performed in Microbiology Reference Laboratories for epidemiological purposes or when a patient does not respond to treatment thought to be adequate, relapses while being treated, or when there is immunosuppression The marked decrease in the cost of DNA sequencing, and the large number of genes now identified as increasing a person's cancer susceptibility (Table 2), have led to the development of panel testing, in which large numbers of genes are tested simultaneously at a cost similar to or even less than the cost of sequencing just one or two genes Host susceptibility to a virus can be markedly affected by age and sex. For many viruses, young animals have a higher mortality than older animals (Figure 3).For other viruses, older animals may exhibit increased susceptibility, such as with human coronaviruses (see Chapter 16, Emerging virus diseases). The sex of the animal often affects the outcome of virus infection

• The susceptibility of coders handling large quantities of technical data is self-evident. • Bacteria are also susceptible to drying and again their susceptibility varies. • And people vary, too, in their susceptibility to addiction. • Many studies have demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to susceptibility to duodenal ulcers Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing show if bacteria are susceptible (can be treated with the drug), intermediate (may be treatable with the drug, but may require adjusted dosage), or resistant (cannot be treated with drug). AST is also referred to as antibiotic susceptibility testing when tests are being performed on bacteria Use. Determine antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms involved in infectious processes when the susceptibility of the organism cannot be predicted from its identity. The pattern of antibiotic susceptibility is sometimes used to monitor nosocomial infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and to evaluate or follow the. Drug susceptibility testing is a difficult procedure to standardize, and proficiency in performing these tests requires an understanding of many elements, including the. Origin of drug resistance and the criteria for resistance; Potency and stability of drugs during laboratory manipulatio

Magnetic susceptibility - Wikipedi

Antimicrobial Susceptibility. There are several factors to consider in choosing an appropriate antibiotic for treatment of a bacterial infection. The most basic of these is whether the causative organism is susceptible to a particular antibiotic, and how much of that antibiotic will be necessary to inhibit or kill the organism 2.1. Diffusion . The disk diffusion method is the gold standard for confirming the susceptibility of bacteria. Standardized disk diffusion was introduced by Bauer and Kirby's experiments in 1956, after finalizing all aspects of optimization by changing physical conditions [].In this method, the isolated bacterial colony is selected, suspended into growth media, and standardized through a. Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria in drug labels - a shift to online updates (Guidance for Industry - Systemic Antibacterial and Antifungal Drugs: Susceptibility Test Interpretive.

Microbiology - Novobiocin - YouTube

As nouns the difference between sensitivity and susceptibility. is that sensitivity is the quality of being sensitive while susceptibility is the condition of being susceptible; vulnerability PERCEIVED SUSCEPTIBILITY. a subjective approximation of the probability of personally contracting an illness, without any thought of severity. Commonly referred to as perceived vulnerability. PERCEIVED SUSCEPTIBILITY: Accounts of perceived susceptibility are higher in underdeveloped countries. Cite this page: N., Pam M.S., PERCEIVED. Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria. The table below lists antibacterial drugs and indicates which, if any, susceptibility test interpretive criteria, also known as breakpoints. Noun (uncountable) Susceptibility to attack or injury; the state or condition of being weak or poorly defended. The country recognized their defence vulnerability after an airplane landed in front of the central square without any consequences. (countable) a specific weakness in the protections or defences surrounding someone or something Moisture susceptibility is a complex phenomenon dependent upon the previously discussed mechanisms. The nature of these mechanisms and their interaction makes it difficult to predict with certainty whether a particular characteristic will be the overriding factor in determining moisture susceptibility

Combinatorial diversity among the 11 attributes makes identifying signatures of susceptibility possible. However, with their inevitable uncertainties and propensity to change, there may still be a low likelihood for prediction with regard to individual host-microbe interactions, although probabilistic prediction may be possible microdilution method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, although the Kirby Bauer method is still employed when needed. In this document, we attempt to answer many of the frequently asked questions regarding antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Of particular importance is the concept of efficacy ratios The molar susceptibility, χm, is then calculated by multiplying cg by the molecular mass of the substance. The molar susceptibility is positive if the substance is paramagnetic and negative if the substance is diamagnetic. The molar susceptibility measured is a sum o

Definition of volume susceptibility. The volume magnetic susceptibility, represented by the symbol (often simply , sometimes — magnetic, to distinguish from the electric susceptibility), is defined by the relationship . where, in SI units, . M is the magnetization of the material (the magnetic dipole moment per unit volume), measured in amperes per meter, an The following are some of the common issues that increase a person's vulnerability, and therefore susceptibility to undue influence: 1. Anything that reduces or impairs cognition (dementia, intoxication, brain injury, etc.). 2. Anything that reduces or impairs mood control. 3 Viral susceptibility and disease progression are determined by host genetic variation. The contributions of host polymorphisms to susceptibility to viral infection have been reported for multiple viruses. For example, a polymorphism in the cellular co-receptor CCR5 prevents HIV-1 from entering the cell, making some individuals resistant (1,2) Synonyms: susceptibility; susceptibleness Hypernyms (susceptibility is a kind of...): condition; status (a state at a particular time). Attribute: susceptible ((often followed by 'of' or 'to') yielding readily to or capable of). insusceptible; unsusceptible (not susceptible to). Hyponyms (each of the following is a kind of susceptibility) The observed magnetic susceptibility χ is the sum of four components: (1) localized spin susceptibility χspin, (2) diamagnetic susceptibility due to the core electrons χcore, (3) Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility χP and (4) orbital diamagnetic susceptibility χ orb due to the cyclotron motion of the itinerant electrons

Hypnotic susceptibility refers to an individual's ability to be hypnotized. At its core, the concept of hypnotic susceptibility addresses the ability of a person to be hypnotized and to what degree that individual experiences the process Antibiotic susceptibility testing is commonly used to select appropriate antimicrobial therapy or deescalate to a narrower spectrum agent. Because not every antibiotic is tested, clinicians must infer certain types of antibiotic susceptibility based on bacterial patterns of resistance and sensitivities of other antibiotics susceptibility testing, an MIC helps determine which class of antibiotic is most effective. This information can lead to an appropriate choice of an antibiotic that will increase chances of treatment success and help in the fight to slow antibiotic resistance. How is the MIC reported? Next to each antibiotic is the susceptibility interpretation

What does susceptibility report mean? - TreeHozz

regarding antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Of particular importance is the concept of efficacy ratios. Efficacy ratios can be used to calculate which antimicrobial drug has the highest predicted efficacy o The susceptibility cards allow testing of common, rapidly growing gram-positive, and gram-negative aerobic bacteria, and S. pneumoniae in a period of 4-10 h. An older, less automated, Vitek 1 System is still used in some laboratories

Technologies | Free Full-Text | Wireless Accelerometer for

What is susceptibility Physics Forum

Drug susceptibility testing means testing to find out if a person has got drug resistant TB. That means finding out which drugs the TB bacteria in their body are sensitive to. It is essential that if a person might possibly have drug resistant TB, that this is discovered as soon as possible, in order that the patient can be provided with. Magnetic susceptibility is the degree to which a material can be magnetized in an external magnetic field. If the ratio between the induced magnetization and the inducing field is expressed per unit volume, volume susceptibility ( k) is defined as. where M is the volume magnetization induced in a material of susceptibility k by the applied. There is a need for quantitative susceptibility testing systems, and the question is how this relates to genomics 35.With a diminishing number of fully active, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents.

Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Lab Tests Onlin

It is important to highlight that genetic susceptibility to a toxicant is the exception rather than the rule. In contrast to genetic susceptibility, most individuals actually have genetic resistance (i.e., the ability through protective measures or repair mechanisms to keep the body from being harmed by toxicants) A Global View of Landslide Susceptibility. By one estimate, landslides triggered by heavy rain kill roughly 4,600 people each year. Scientists at NASA and elsewhere are trying to find ways to reduce that number. Dalia Kirschbaum and Thomas Stanley have taken one step in that direction by developing a new map of global landslide susceptibility

What does Susceptible, Intermediate, and Resistant Mean

Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is hypothesized as a general trait that varies across individuals and is related to other individual traits and characteristics (McGuire 1968). The construct is defined as the need to identify with or enhance one's image in the opinion of significant others through the acquisition and use of. If the pathogen susceptibility rate to a particular antibiotic is around 80%, the doctor should select a different antibiotic. If the patient is critically ill, a susceptibility rate of 90-95% might be better. This report helps the doctor make a more educated guess about which antibiotic will most likely eradicate their patient's infection Magnetic susceptibility corresponds to the internal magnetization of a tissue resulting from the interactions with an external magnetic field. When two tissues with different magnetic susceptibilities are juxtaposed, it causes local distortions in the magnetic field. There are such natural interfaces between air and tissue or between trabecular. Landslide Susceptibility. A landslide susceptibility map identifies areas which are subject to landslides and is measured from low to high. The landslide susceptibility map takes into account where the landslides occur and what causes them (slope, soil type and the impact of the flow of water in an area) Why preexisting conditions like obesity and diabetes increase COVID-19 susceptibility. What endothelial disfunction is, and how it relates to viral infections. The definition of microbiome

Susceptibility Testing - Infectious Diseases - Merck

Multiple different methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing exist, including conventional methods, automated systems, and newer molecular techniques. Understanding these methods allows clinicians to correctly interpret susceptibility testing results reported by the clinical microbiology laboratory What is the role of nutrition in immunity and host susceptibility to COVID-19? The metabolic activity of immune cells is enhanced after a viral infection, such as the one driven by COVID-19. Dietary approaches that support a healthy gut microbiome can benefit the immune system and ensure a good nutritional status that would help the host deal. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, or AST, is a widely-used method of evaluating antibiotic resistance and determining patient treatment plans in clinical settings. There are a number of different methods of AST such as agar dilution, broth dilution and disc diffusion assays If magnetic susceptibility of a certain magnetic material is 0.0001, find its relative permeability. asked Jul 17, 2020 in Physics by Aalaya ( 47.6k points) ics Electrical susceptibility of a material, {eq}\chi_e {/eq}, is a property of a material that describes its ability to be polarized when subjected to an electric field

Cedar Apple & Quince Rusts - Ontario AppleIPMToronto Dental Office Tour | DrPrevention of xeroderma pigmentosum | General centerCotesia glomerataBackStory with the American History Guys

magnetic susceptibility. [ mag′ned·ik sə‚sep·tə′bil·əd·ē] (electromagnetism) The ratio of the magnetization of a material to the magnetic field strength; it is a tensor when these two quantities are not parallel; otherwise it is a simple number. Also known as susceptibility. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms. Susceptibility in Homoeopathy. Susceptibility is the general capability of the organism to receive impression or the power of the organism to react to stimuli. It is one of the fundamental attributes of life. Upon it depends all the vital process, all functioning, physiological and pathological. Digestion, assimilation, nutrition, repair. New Evidence of Link Between Blood Type & COVID-19 Susceptibility. Individuals with blood type O may have lowest risk of infection; individuals with A and AB may have increased risk of severe clinical outcomes. Two studies published today (October 14, 2020) in Blood Advances suggest people with blood type O may have a lower risk of COVID-19. Susceptibility is a strong contender for the title of 'most confusing quantity in all science'. There are five reasons for this: The counterpart to permeability in electrostatics has a distinct name: permittivity. Unfortunately, the counterpart to susceptibility in electrostatics has the same name. However. Paul Gigot (left) and Daniel Henninger (right) are the leading editors of the Wall Street Journal's Editorial Board. On July 20, 2021 they allowed publication of a radically false statement about the susceptibility of COVID-recovered and already immune Americans to the risk of re-infection